These militias formed largely along communal lines: the Lebanese Front (LF), led by the Phalangists (or Phalange), represented Maronite Christian clans whose leaders had dominated the traditional elite class of the country’s sociopolitical fabric; the Lebanese National Movement (LNM), a coalition of secular leftists and Sunni Muslims sympathetic to Arab nationalism; the Amal (“Hope,” also an acronym for Afwāj al-Muqāwamah al-Lubnāniyyah [Lebanese Resistance Detachments]) movement, comprising Shiʿi populists; and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which represented Lebanon’s large Palestinian refugee population. [11] During the course of the fighting, alliances shifted rapidly and unpredictably. The more prominent groups were secular and holding a Nasserist ideology, or otherwise having pan-Arab and Arab nationalist leanings. Syria’s intervention sparked a more active Israeli involvement as well, in which Israel armed and financed Christian militias in the south of the country, whom Israelis looked upon as their main ally in their fight against the PLO. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (Arabic: الاحتلال السوري للبنان ‎, French: Occupation syrienne du Liban) began in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War, and ended in 2005 following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.. Around December 1980, tensions increased between Zahlawi Lebanese Forces and Syrian backed Leftist militants. The Beirut suburbs of Bourj Hamoud and Naaba were controlled by the Armenian Dashnak party. The Lebanese army, after controlling Beirut since Israeli withdrawal, is expelled from West Beirut, accused of partisanship with the Lebanese forces, mass arrests, etc. The Syrian government could also count on the Syrian brigades of the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA), formally but not functionally the PLO's regular army. In the Lebanese Civil War, the citizens of Lebanon wanted their civil rights. On 19 October 1976, the Battle of Aishiya took place, when a combined force of PLO and a Communist militia attacked Aishiya, an isolated Maronite village in a mostly Muslim area. The first troops of a multinational force landed in Beirut on 21 August 1982 to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon and U.S. mediation resulted in the evacuation of Syrian troops and PLO fighters from Beirut. Shortly afterwards, 21 January, a car bomb killed 20 people in Furn ash-Shebbak, East Beirut. Conflict in this period was also exacerbated by increasing Iraqi involvement, as Saddam Hussein searched for proxy battlefields for the Iran–Iraq War. The Palestinian radicals' secularism and behaviour had alienated the traditionalist Shi'ite community; the Shi'a did not want to pay the price for the PLO's rocket attacks from Southern Lebanon. The only political person who remained in East Beirut Achrafiyeh all the 100 days was the president Camille Chamoun, and refused to get out of the area. The north had advantage in manpower. After the end of the civil war in 1990, Lebanon gradually reclaimed a degree of relative socioeconomic and political stability; because of the continued problems of external intervention and troubled confessional relations, however, many…. He was not able to return until May 2005. The LNM dissolved after the Israeli invasion of 1982 and was replaced by the Lebanese National Resistance Front, known as Jammoul in Arabic. The agreement also provided for the deployment of a multinational force composed of U.S. Marines along with French, Italian and British units. Another notable example was the pan-Syrian Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), which promoted the concept of Greater Syria, in contrast to Pan-Arab or Lebanese nationalism. Meanwhile, on 5 June, the UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 508 calling for "all the parties to the conflict to cease immediately and simultaneously all military activities within Lebanon and across the Lebanese-Israeli border and no later than 0600 hours local time on Sunday, 6 June 1982". Hezbollah's original aims included the establishment of an Islamic state in Lebanon. Israel carried out a retaliatory aerial attack on PLO and PFLP targets in West Beirut that led to over 100 casualties. On 18 April 1983, a suicide bombing attack at the U.S. Embassy in West Beirut killed 63, beginning a series of attacks against U.S. and Western interests in Lebanon. To what extent did Lebanon achieve autonomy as … Lebanon (Civil War 1975-1991) Non-Lebanese military and paramilitary forces retain significant influence over much of the country. I heard Phalanges killed members of the Tigers militia in 1981, but why? [58], Between 1985 and 1989, sectarian conflict worsened as various efforts at national reconciliation failed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1996, pp. As of 2012, approximately 76,000 people remain displaced within Lebanon. It built a powerful private army, which proved to be one of the strongest in the Lebanese Civil War of 1975 to 1990. Some Western hostages kidnapped during the mid-1980s were held until June 1992. To complicate things, the Ba'athist countries of Syria and Iraq both set up Palestinian puppet organizations within the PLO. In East Beirut, in 1976, Maronite leaders of the National Liberal Party (NLP), the Kataeb Party and the Lebanese Renewal Party joined in the Lebanese Front, a political counterpoint to the LNM. The Amal Party and the Druze Progressive Socialist Party take control of West Beirut. Aoun fled to the French Embassy in Beirut, and later into exile in Paris. [citation needed] People in Galilee regularly had to leave their homes during these shellings. During the 1960s Lebanon was relatively calm, but this would soon change. His son Walid succeeded him as leader of the party. [citation needed] The SLA continued to operate after the civil war but collapsed after the Israeli army withdrew from South Lebanon in 2000. The catalyst is foreign meddling. Was the Civil War necessary? On 26 June, a UN Security Council resolution was proposed that "demands the immediate withdrawal of the Israeli forces engaged round Beirut, to a distance of 10 kilometers from the periphery of that city, as a first step towards the complete withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon, and the simultaneous withdrawal of the Palestinian armed forces from Beirut, which shall retire to the existing camps;"[44] the United States vetoed the resolution because it was "a transparent attempt to preserve the PLO as a viable political force,"[45] However, President Reagan made an impassioned plea to Prime Minister Begin to end the siege. Documents captured in PLO headquarters after the invasion showed they had come from Lebanon. [61] The violence quickly escalated with extensive artillery exchanges. [59], On 8 March 1985 a car bomb exploded in Bir al-Abid, south Beirut, killing 80 and injuring over 400. 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