The increase was just 2% in 1½ years. In 1918, oil exports amounted to 2 million tons (almost half of the annual production). Reciprocally, post-Soviet Russia continues to rely on this same Ukrainian infrastructure for exports to Europe. Even the 1985 Saudi increase in production that was so crucial to the global decline in oil prices was primarily a Saudi initiative taken in the interest of Saudi exports. (Belarus and Lithuania are the other two.) The collapse of the CMEA fractured the Soviet empire geopolitically, yet it severed neither the pipelines nor other physical infrastructure and networks of energy exchange erected since the Second World War. Even amid a recently growing body of energy histories, there has remained a dearth of studies investigating the Soviet Union as a primary protagonist rather than a mere rival to western Cold War pursuits. Using recently published transcripts of Party Congress and Central Committee meetings among numerous recently declassified and unpublished archival sources, Nekrasov depicts a stark contrast between the coal-industrial policies of Stalin and the hydrocarbon development objectives of Khrushchev. The end of the Soviet Union, in other words, was more an admixture of Tsarist-rooted “economic backwardness,” population centers far removed from oil and gas sources, “the inherent contradictions of the Soviet system,” and fluctuations in global oil prices than of Reagan-era pressures. Hardcover/425 pages/2017 AVIATION / AEROSPACE. Although the Soviet Union and United States were critical actors, possibilities and even a desire for cooperation among the emerging East-West blocs still existed. GERMAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY: 1917-1945 . (Under Putin it has returned to 10-million barrels.) The ammo production was lacking behind numbers of all kind of artillery which could have been seen on Kursk statistics: while Soviet had 1.8 … Soviet Production Rationalized. 3. Several contributors, for instance, emphasize that, despite western fears, the Soviet Union never deployed its oil and gas weapon to gain political concessions from the West or its eastern allies. It made me wonder if the adoption of turretless Soviet self-propelled guns prior to 1944 might have been influenced by this situation. This interdependent relationship, Suvi Kansikas argues in her chapter, came under stress when the global oil price drop of the 1980s caused the Soviet leadership to reconsider the preferential position to which it had elevated Eastern European political stability over national economic concerns. The root of the problem is two decades of unbalanced policy favoring near-term payoff over long-term preparation. Indeed, as Rehschuh states unequivocally, “the oil-rich Soviet Union would have been better off pursuing conventional investments in oil extraction” than in coal processing and “constantly changing investment allocation decisions” that focused on refining for export over exploration and production (52-3). Hitler's plan was to … This drop was due to a number of factors, including labor unrest surrounding the 1905 revolu- tion. Still, the fact that she introduces the reverse – Russia’s dependency on Ukraine – begged this reader’s interest in the other side of this interdependency. In … Pipelines, therefore, played a central role in these discussions. Soviet oil production was 33 million tons per annum prewar. His weapons were robust, mass-produced and with a minor cost with his german Counterpart. Red oil, of course, provoked contention far beyond England. Central Intelligence Agency. The first chapter, “From Crisis to Plenty,” traces the changing role of petroleum in the Soviet Union’s energy economy under Stalin. Soviet Oil sources - WWII Post by atg » 2011-07-20 02:04am I've heard and read that the Germans should have concentrated more on taking the Caucasus, with the aim of depriving the Soviet Union of the oil from there. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. The final chapter traces the legacies CMEA energy relations examined above into the present day. Soviet oil and gas policy, in other words, was multi-faceted, adaptive, and, quite often, contended. Although Moscow remained the hegemon, such onerous obligations likewise gave the CMEA countries considerable bargaining power when the Soviet Union threatened to redirect flows to the West. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Luftwaffe ’s growing desperation for fuel as the war progressed, it is necessary to examine Germany’s oil situation … Four out of five Soviet aircraft, tanks and trucks used in World War II ran on fuel produced in Baku refineries from oil extracted in the Baku oil fields. Soviet artillery was of a high standard. Starving Russian women and men were working in factories even during the most terrible days of the Siege of Leningrad Military production during World War II was a critical component to military performance during World War II. BY DECADE. That fell to 18 million tons in 1943, an amount still twice the tonnage available to Germany. II, Germany’s relentless quest to capture Soviet oil caused them to lose what precious little of it they already possessed. Interestingly, Bini goes on to argue quite convincingly that Italy pioneered and facilitated relations East-West – both infrastructural and political – that Western Europe would adopt by the early 1970s, simultaneously promoting greater dependence on Soviet hydrocarbons while deepening East-West infrastructural integration. Exploration has been systematically neglected in favor of development, and the West Siberian oil … Turning Point . The USSR's global energy balance will depend on accelerating natural gas development. Following the auctions of oilfields in 1872, all oil production was in private hands, and the owners adopted new drilling technology resulting in the initial expansion in oil output. Subscribe to our newsletter with the latest reports from the war diaries and about World War I & II. Reviewed by Nicholas Ostrum, Clark State Community College, Cold War Energy: A Transnational History of Soviet Oil and Gas It covers much new territory, effectively utilizes previously inaccessible materials, and offers nuanced insights into Soviet and CMEA energy policies during the Cold War. Learn how your comment data is processed. Instead of petroleum, the Soviets focused domestic energy policy on coal liquefaction through German-pioneered techniques adopted most fervently in the Nazi pursuit of energy autarky. The anti-Axis war oroduction was not justchanged in quantatative terms. During World War II, there were no exports; in 1946–1949, exports were also almost nonexistent (0.5–0.9 milli… This point is well taken. The third section of this volume addresses similar questions of Soviet decline and collapse. These efforts, however, faltered in the face a deficit in specialized knowledge, an abundance of “incompetence and opportunism,” and active resistance from various industrial companies, lobbies, and even Gosplan, the state planning committee. The possible effects on the level of exports of such recent events as the 1985 decline in Soviet oil production, the 1986 oil price collapse and the Chernobyl disaster are also evaluated. It was only with the German invasion in 1941 and that the domestic importance of oil was realized. Required fields are marked *. As Perović argues, intra-bloc cooperation must be considered alongside East-West confrontation. Unsurprisingly, many arguments in these bodies echoed those of the British case. Formation and structure Defense factories already played an important role in … Following are tables of the annual Russian (Soviet) armaments production (excluding ammunition) and a comparison of the necessary strategic raw materials. The secret pact of Standard Oil with the Nazis and why Adolf Eichmann was silenced The Russian Revolution installed a new global order. Soviet oil production peaked in 1983 and declined in 1984, chiefly because the growth of West Siberian output has nearly stopped. Bolstered by Lend-Lease, the Soviets took what they could and developed several capable aircraft designs of their own in an effort to turn back the tide of the German invasion. Whether a proto- or early Cold War bout, it speaks directly to the centrality of resource access to that nascent conflict. [Washington] : … Overview about the relative comparison of the military production and wartime expenditures of the Axis and Allies in World War II. Despite strict rationing, however, it still had to import oil from the United States to meet its own needs. The volume opens with an introduction by editor Jeronim Perović that makes a strong case for the importance of this volume. The remaining tank factories could produce designs already in existence, but they could not machine new turret rings. COMPARE. Copyright © 2006-2020 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED - THE OPERATORS OF THIS SITE DISSOCIATE THEMSELVES FROM CONTENTS OF OTHER WEBSITES, WHICH ARE LINKED ON THESE PAGES. The following chapter by Alain Beltran and Jean-Pierre Williot similarly examines East-West company-country relations by exploring the French Gaz de France’s (GDF) quest for Soviet natural gas. The French, Italians, and, to an extent, West Germans, however, focused on the promise of opening western markets to cheap and abundant eastern feedstocks in exchange for the hard currency that would, in turn, open the Soviet Union to western exports. Later, I have learned programming and the development of computer games, and finally with the Internet, also web design. Lorenz M. Lüthi’s chapter addresses similar questions through examining declassified East German material concerning “CMEA meetings, internal assessments, and conversations between Soviet and East German officials.”  Through this, he analyzes the tensions within the CMEA over oil and gas supplies, pipelines, and electrification. Ultimately, not only arguments for and against a pipeline embargo, but also appraisals of the industrial value, economic impact, and, even, definition of large-diameter petroleum pipelines broke down along similar lines. Such tensions existed not only between the International Investment Bank (IIB) – the Soviet counterpart to the International Monetary Fund – and the Eastern Bloc, but among bloc members who had varying national economic and energy needs, trade strategies, and credit ratings. Russian (Soviet) armaments production in the Second World War. Then the US corporates wanted to get in the global business, above all, John D. Rockefeller who founded Standard Oil in 1870. When Harry Hopkins first time in 1941 visited Moscow and asked Stalin what Soviets need more than anything else The Generalissimo replied: “aluminium”. towards research on “Soviet production, employment, and the defense burden, 1937 and 1940-1945”, and by study leave from the University of Warwick. NOTE: VISITING THIS SITE WITH ENABLED AD BLOCKERS IS PROHIBITED ! Pipelines and long-term energy flows may generate dependencies, but they are also “modifiable.”  They are legacies, she argues, not destiny. Steel Production (In million Tons): Year, Germany, URSS 1941 31; 14.5 1942 32; … This was, Rehschuh points out, a peculiar policy for the Soviets given the massive reserves in Baku as well as the recently discovered “Second Baku” in the Volga-Urals. Between 1929 and 1932, they made up between 3.9 million and 6.1 million tons. Such potential, as addressed most directly by Balmaceda, was only realized in the Russian Federation, who nevertheless was and still is alternately enabled and constrained by the legacies of Soviet energy policy. The ammo production was lacking behind numbers of all kind of artillery which could have been seen on Kursk statistics: while Soviet had 1.8 times more artillery and mortars, Germans could fire 2.2 times more shells weight (51,083 tons vs. 21,867 tons), Your email address will not be published. The plan estimated Axis oil production could be reduced by 50% by bombing—33% below the amount Nazi Germany needed —but also included 4 additional priorities: first oil, then fighter and ball bearing production, rubber production… Seven major oil compnies dominated the production and export of oil at the time Hitler and Stalin launched World War II. The Soviet Union was at the time the world's second largest oil producer. 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